History of Bikram Sambat Nepali calendar
Bikram Sambat is the calendar established by Indian emperor Vikramaditya and is recognized as the official calendar of Nepal. In addition to Bikram Samwat, the Gregorian calendar is also widely accepted in the Nepali community. Nepali Calendar is a solar calendar based on ancient Hindu traditions. The history of Nepali calendar has an intriguing story.
History of bikram sambat nepali calendar:
It’s said that this calendar derives its name from king Bikramaditya of Rajasthan,the then an independent country in the Indian sub continent. But after the rise of the Rana oligarchs in Nepal, Bikram Sambat was discontinued for a long time along with the official Shaka Sambat. They discontinued Shaka Sambat in its 1823rd year butlater replaced it with Bikram Sambat for functionary use since then; Bikram Sambat came into official use in 1958 as Nepali calendar.
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Significance of Nepali calendar has different aspects the more important one being that the Nepalese people use more than one calendar and celebrate their new year days accordingly. Nepal has a unique lunar calendar by its own name, called Nepal Sambat. Almost all festivals rituals are observed according to this calendar. This calendar originated in Nepal and bears strict resemblance to Nepalese culture and tradition. The different months in the Nepali calendar are named accordingly as beginning with Baisakh and ending with Chait.
There are many events in the Nepali calendar with each month having a special religious ritual assigned to it, the most important being the festival of Mata Tirtha Puja, Buddha Jayanti and Dashain. Thus, the Nepali Calendar presents an accurate measuring of different religious celebrations of the Nepalese.
प्रसङ्ग: विक्रम सम्बत, बिक्रमादित्य, सोमेश्वर महादेव, सोमेश्वर काली र चैतेदशै र सोमेश्वर पर्वत श्रृंखला (सोमेश्वर किल्ला आसपास) – माडी, चितवन।
प्रसङ्ग-१: सोमेश्वर पर्वत र चन्द्रमा
चन्द्रमा को बिभिन्न नाम मध्य ‘सोम’ एक हो। वामन पुराण मा वर्णन गरिए अनुसार चन्द्रमा लाई एक ऋषि ले श्राप दिएका थिए र सो श्राप बाट मुक्ती को लागी चन्द्रदेव द्वारा शिवजी को तपस्या स्थल भएको हुनाले यस पर्वत सोमेश्वर नाम ले प्रख्यात छ। सोमेश्वर पर्वत लाई चन्द्रमा को तपोभूमी को रुप मा जानिन्छ। चन्द्रदेव को तपस्या ले गर्दा सोमेश्वर भगवान शंकर को नाम रहन गएको हो।
प्रसङ्ग-२: सोमेश्वर पर्वत र बिक्रमादित्य
आज भन्दा लगभग २१८३ वर्ष पहीले उज्जैन का महान कवि तथा राजा भर्तृहरी राजयोगी अर्थात तपस्वी बने पश्चात उनका कान्छा भाई बिक्रमादित्य ले सोमेश्वर शिवालय को शिवलिङ्ग मा पूजा गरी शक्तिशाली महाराज बनेको दिन चैत्र शुल्क प्रतिपदा को तिथी थियो। सोमेश्वर पहाड मा शिवालय को अवशेष स्वरुप शिवलिङ्ग विध्यमान रहेको छ। शनिश्चरे पर्वत श्रृंखला समाप्त भएको स्थान कसरा नजिकै को बिक्रमबाबा स्थान लाई विक्रमादित्य को समाधी मानिन्छ। साथै, विक्रम सम्बत हिन्दू पञ्चाङ्ग मा आधारित नेपाल को राष्ट्रिय पात्रो हो।
प्रसङ्ग-३: सोमेश्वर पर्वत र सोमेश्वरकाली
राजा बिक्रमादित्य ले शुरु गरेको उक्त दिन देखी आज सम्म सोमेश्वर पर्वत मा अवस्थित कालिका देवी र महादेव् को हरेक वर्ष चैत्र नवमी को अवसर मा पूजा-आजा र चैतेदशै को जात्रा चली आएको छ साथै जारी छ। प्रती बर्ष हजारौ को सन्ख्या मा तिर्थालु भक्तजनहरु नेपाल तथा भारत को उत्तर प्रदेश र बिहार राज्य बाट आउने गर्द छन।
पुराण: यस को अर्थ आदिकाल देखि चलिआएको मान्यता हो जो अधिकांशतः किम्बदन्ती (mythology) मा आधारित छ। यहाँ दुवै सन्दर्भ लाई उल्लेख गरिएको छ। साथै, संसार भरिका अधिकांश ऐतिहासिक महत्व का स्थल हरु किंवदन्ती अर्थात पुराण मा आधारित छन्। जस्तो कि: काठमाडौं, बाराणसी, जेरुसेलम, मक्का, इजिप्ट, ग्रिस, रोम र भेनिस आदि का पुरातात्त्विक महत्त्वका संरचनाहरु।
ईतिहास: हिजो को वावास्तविकता हो। यस पोष्ट मा दुबै सन्देश दिन खोजिएको छ, जस्तो कि; वामन पुराण मा उल्लेख गरिए अनुसार: चन्द्रमा ले श्राप मोचन को लागि सोमेश्वर पर्वत मा आई शिवलिंग स्थापना गरि तपश्या गरिएको भनिएको छ, जबकि यो असंभव छ। तर सोहि मान्यता लाई आधार मानेर उज्जैन का तपश्वि राजा एवम् कवि भर्तृहरि ले २१८३ बर्ष अगाडि आफु तपश्वि बनेर आफ्ना कान्छा भाई लाई उक्त शिवालय मा पुजापाठ गराई राज्यसत्ता सुम्पिएको उल्लेख गर्न खोजिएको हो।
द्रष्टव्य: प्राकृतिक हरियाली को बीच नेपाल र भारत को सिमा मा अवस्थित सोमेश्वर पर्वत लाई चन्द्रमा र भर्तृहरी को तपोभूमी को रुप मा जानिन्छ र आज पनि तपस्वी भर्तृहरी को कुटी र शिवालय को अवशेष स्वरुप शिवलिङ्ग विध्यमान रहेको छ। भौगोलिक रुपमा, सोमेश्वर पर्वत श्रृंखला को टाकुराहरु (करिब १०० किलोमिटर लम्बाइ) नो-म्यानस्ल्याण्ड अर्थात भारत तर्फ वाल्मीकि टाइगर आरक्षण, पश्चिम चम्पारण र नेपाल तर्फ चितवन राष्ट्रिय निकुञ्ज, माडी नगरपालिका साथै पर्सा राष्ट्रिय निकुञ्ज, ठोरी गाउँ पालिका को सीमा रेखा मा पर्दछन्। चम्पारण, चितवन र पर्सा जिल्लाहरु को सीमा क्षेत्रमा दुवै देश तर्फ थारूहरु को सघन बसोबास रहेको छ।
स्रोत: दैनिक्-जागरण एवम मुजफ्फरपुर-नाउ, अगस्ट, २०२०। साथै मेरो जन्म स्थान माडी नगरपालिका साबिक को गर्दी गाविस मा भएको जानकारी गराउन चाहन्छु र भौगोलिक र ऐतिहासिक तथ्य हरु को बारेमा जानकारी राख्द छु।
श्री थलराज पन्त (अध्यक्ष) श्री राम जानकी अनुशन्धान एवं अध्यायन मण्डल (श्री’राम संस्था), अमेरिका।
The legendary founder of the Vikrama Era (57 B.C.) was Vikramaditya who drove the foreign Sakas out of Ujjayini, the capital of the Kingdom of Avanti. This is the legend. As far as history is concerned, the King who took the title of Vikramaditya (the Heroic sun) and drove th Sakas from Ujjayini was Candra Gupta II (ca. A.D. 376-4315), who lived some four hundred years later than the founding of the Vikrama Era ! In the earliest inscriptions using this era, all from Western India, it is not called Vikrama Samvat; it is simply called malva kta samvat, i.e., handed down by the Malva tribe-a tribe of uncertain origins in Central India.
It is not clear how Bikram sambat came into existence and how Nepalese government started to use this calendar, if it is not a foreign calendar? And Why Chandra Gupta II decorated himself “Bikramaditya” Is there a connection or logic for this?
THANKS SIR FOR UR GREAT INFORMATION,
Thank you so much about this piece of information.
But how are the dates calculated in BS Calender. Is there any formula for date calculation like ” Gregorian Calender ” ?
thank you so so much Dirgha Raj Prasai for the information about the Bikram Sambat.
Please tell me when the dasain and tihar starts in 2071 B.S. Thank you
The Original History of Bikram Sambat
Some people guess Bikram era was from foreign land and it was started from Madhya Pradesh of India. This is not true. Chandra Gupta II in forth century became king of Ujjayani. He captured Ayodhdhya in around 400 AD and made his capital. He then pasted himself on copper coins as ‘Bikramaditya’. But the same Chandra Gupta declaring himself decorated Bikramaditya, but he was not being originator of Bikram Samat. In fact since Gupta kings of Magadh were influenced by Lichchhavis of Nepal, Chandra Gupta I married princess of Lichchhavis king. Therefore due to influence of bravery of Lichchhavi Kings, Chandra Gupta II might have decorated himself as ‘Bikramaditya’. Still, the logic is not valid that Bikram Sambat started from India as Chandra Gupta II was decorated as Bikramaditya. The famous historian Baburam Acharya has written ‘During 58 BC when Bikram Era was begun, there is no proof of existence of King Bikramaditya in Ujjayani of India. No proof was established when of excavates of Ujjayani were studied.” In this situation it is proved that Bikram Sambat is not foreign Era. Bikram Sambat is original and ancient era of Nepal.
In BS 1937, a literate researcher Pandit Bhagawan Lal Indraji from Gujrat India came to Nepal and searched and carried 23 different inscriptions. He believed that the era practiced by Lichchivis was Bikram era. Similarly Radha Govind Basak, Professor of History at Calcutta University writes in History of Northern East part of India – ‘The era of Mandev 386 mentioned in record of Changu is Bikram era. In this way, era starting from 386 to 489 (written in records at Chapali village) is Bikram era. Historian Shankarman Rajbansi also believes that era used by Mandev is also Bikram era. So, there are so many proofs on Bikram era. The era is traditionally being used in different states of India. In Bengal of India, Panchangas based on solar theory in accordance to Bikram era are in practice. Million copy printing news weekly Future edited by Arun Bansal and Panchangas edited by Dr. Geeta Sharma; both based on Bikram era are also being published.
Along with Bikram Era, Nepal era was also practiced from Mid Lichchavis to nation builder Prithvi Narayan Shah and Rana regime. Since Tithis are unbalanced, for ease in administrative management Chandra Shamsher started to write the date of Bikram era as in AD (Isvi Sambat). In India Shaka Era was continually being disappeared. However in 1957 after the independence of India (1947) Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru stated passive Shaka Era with belief that the era is of Indian origin. But, since Shaka Era is also run with Tithis and has 354 days in a year, it was unpractical and could not go long run. Therefore India practiced AD (Isvi Sambat). Similarly compared to Bikram Era, Nepal era could not be practical. Bikram Sambat is based and had and has being following the rule and regulation of nature.
Yogi Narahari Nath, a veteran literate and saint has mentioned that someone victorian King Bikramaditya according to Devmala Bansabali, had a throne at place where now Ram Mandir (Temple of God Ram at Battisputali of Kathmandu) has been constructed; and according to Pashupati Puran, the Bikram era was initiated during the regime of first king of Suryabanshi (Sun descendent) Lichchavis, who ruled Nepal after their victory on Kirats, called as Dharmapal or Bhoomi Barma or Bikramaditya. A study on Bhasa Bansabali, (Eds. Nayanath Paudyal) published by Department of Archeology, Government of Nepal) reveals that during the regime of King Dharmagat, on the name of the king a Chatarmukh Narayan (four mouthed statue of God Narayana) along with a spout (now Narayanhiti) was created towards the south of royal palace and open to pay pilgrimage. The Bansabali mentions this was time when Bikram era was initiated and started to practice.
Lichchhavi king declaring himself Baishalipati (The King of Baishali) and due to power of lord Pashupatinath, became the king of Kashi (Vanarashi) too. Bikram era was initiated when a brave and victorian Suryabanshi king established his capital at Bishalnagar and Battaishputali (Himabatkhand). Here is another proof that Bikram era was started in Nepal from unknown ancient time. Just near above to a temple of Sankhu Bajrayogini there is another temple in which the head of King Bikramaditya has been kept.
And till the date it is being worshipped by Bajracharya priests. It is a myth that King Bikramaditya ruled the Uttarapur state (now: Nala of Kavre district). A Bansabali at Harisiddhi temple established by Lichhchivi dynasty has quoted BS 711. Harisidhdhi upapuran mentions that Harisidhdhi drama was demonstrated at BS 945. A Subarna patra (gold plate) of time of Jayasthiti Malla also mentions BS 1448. These all quotations prove that Bikram era was well practiced in ancient Nepal.
Dirgha Raj Prasai